Propionate gut bacteria

The human large intestine contains a microbiota, the components of which are generically complex and metabolically diverse. Its primary function is to salvage energy from carbohydrate not digested in the upper gut. This is achieved through fermentation and absorption of the major products, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), which represent 40–50% of the available energy of the carbohydrate. The principal SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate, are metabolized by the colonic epithelium (butyrate), liver (propionate) and muscle (acetate). Intestinal bacteria also have a role in the synthesis of vitamins B and K and the metabolism of bile acids, other sterols and xenobiotics.

Select a gRNA expression plasmid based on factors such as selectable marker or cloning method. When using CRISPR, you will need to express both a Cas protein and a target-specific gRNA in the same cell at the same time. Single plasmids containing both the gRNA and Cas protein act as all-in-one vectors, but their function is often limited to a single category (cut, nick, etc.) On the other hand, gRNA plasmids that do not co-express a Cas protein can be paired with a wide variety of Cas-containing plasmids. gRNA Plasmid Promoter Cloning
Enzyme(s) Validated In Resistance Co-expressed Cas9 Depositing lab Cas9 species = S. pyogenes (PAM = NGG) pCRISPR BsaI E. coli,
S. pneumoniae Kanamycin none, need Cas9 plasmid Marraffini pCas9 BsaI E. coli,
S. pneumoniae Chloramphenicol yes, cut Marraffini pgRNA-bacteria BBa_J23119 SpeI + HindIII Ampicillin none, need Cas9 plasmid Qi
Do you have suggestions for other plasmids that should be added to this list?

Like glycolysis, much of the energy consumed is used in the irreversible steps of the process.
Six high-energy phosphate bonds are consumed: two from GTP and four from ATP. Furthermore, two molecules of NADH are required for the reduction of two molecules of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate in the reaction catalyzed by glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The oxidation of NADH causes  the lack of production of 5 molecules of ATP that are synthesized when the electrons of the reduced coenzyme are used in oxidative phosphorylation.
Also these energetic considerations show that gluconeogenesis is not simply glycolysis in reverse, in which case it would require the consumption of two molecules of ATP, as shown by the overall glycolytic equation.

Don’t forget that you can ingest less than 80% of your food as fat and still end up deriving over 80% of your burned calories from fat. How? You gut microbes turn fiber into saturated fat. Mostly butyrate, But also acetate, etc. This is the ketogenic diet that ruminants such as grass-fed cattle ingest. It’s all grass but they are burning mostly fat by the time the fiber gets digested. There just isn’t hardly any glucose coming out of the grass. This is the kind of ketogenic diet to aim for – high in fiber, low in small-intestine-digestible sugars and starches. Green leafy vegetables are very low on the glycemic index. You can eat a couple of pounds of this stuff a day. Start slowly though. If this hasn’t been your “keto” diet in the past, it’s worth a try. Start slowly.

Propionate gut bacteria

propionate gut bacteria

Don’t forget that you can ingest less than 80% of your food as fat and still end up deriving over 80% of your burned calories from fat. How? You gut microbes turn fiber into saturated fat. Mostly butyrate, But also acetate, etc. This is the ketogenic diet that ruminants such as grass-fed cattle ingest. It’s all grass but they are burning mostly fat by the time the fiber gets digested. There just isn’t hardly any glucose coming out of the grass. This is the kind of ketogenic diet to aim for – high in fiber, low in small-intestine-digestible sugars and starches. Green leafy vegetables are very low on the glycemic index. You can eat a couple of pounds of this stuff a day. Start slowly though. If this hasn’t been your “keto” diet in the past, it’s worth a try. Start slowly.

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