Les propionates

More specifically, the biosynthesis of (−)-menthol takes place in the secretory gland cells of the peppermint plant. Geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS), first catalyzes the reaction of IPP and DMAPP into geranyl diphosphate . Next (−)-limonene synthase (LS) catalyzes the cyclization of geranyl diphosphate to (−)- limonene . (−)-Limonene-3-hydroxylase (L3OH), using O 2 and NADPH , then catalyzes the allylic hydroxylation of (−)-limonene at the 3 position to (−)-trans-isopiperitenol. (−)- trans -Isopiperitenol dehydrogenase (iPD) further oxidizes the hydroxyl group on the 3 position using NAD + to make (−)-isopiperitenone. (−)-Isopiperitenone reductase (iPR) then reduces the double bond between carbons 1 and 2 using NADPH to form (+)- cis -isopulegone. (+)- cis -Isopulegone isomerase (iPI) then isomerizes the remaining double bond to form (+)-pulegone. (+)-Pulegone reductase (PR) then reduces this double bond using NADPH to form (−)-menthone. (−)-Menthone reductase (MR) then reduces the carbonyl group using NADPH to form (−)-menthol. [9]

In tropical regions of the food-short countries, mold causes additional spoilage. In the case of peanuts, an important source of protein in Africa and India, one type of mold ( Aspergillus ftavus ) produces a substance called “aflatoxin,” which even in trace amounts is highly carcinogenic for experimental animals. This mold also grows freely on cereal grains, sweet potatoes, and legumes, and even slightly moldy food is likely to be unfit for human consumption. Lack of refrigeration also results in spoilage of fruits and vegetables, which are a glut on the market when in season and unavailable or prohibitively expensive the rest of the time.

Acute effects may include anxiety and panic, impaired attention, and memory (while intoxicated), an increased risk of psychotic symptoms, and possibly an increased risk of accidents if a person drives a motor vehicle while intoxicated. [72] Short-term cannabis intoxication can hinder the mental processes of organizing and collecting thoughts. This condition is known as temporal disintegration. [73] Psychotic episodes are well-documented and typically resolve within minutes or hours. There have been few reports of symptoms lasting longer. [74] [75] Studies have found that cannabis use during adolescence is associated with impairments in memory that persist beyond short-term intoxication. [76]

Les propionates

les propionates


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